Rune Dahl Fitjar, Hilmar Rommetvedt and Christin Berg:
European Capitals of Culture: elitism or inclusion? The case of Stavanger 2008.
International Journal of Cultural Policy, forthcoming.
Published online: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10286632.2011.600755
Who participates in the European Capital of Culture? This article analyses participation in Stavanger, European Capital of Culture (ECOC) in 2008, drawing on data from a survey conducted among a cross-section of the population of the city and its closest surrounds. It examines whether there is systematic variation in the number and type of events attended across key social background characteristics such as gender, age, education and income, as well as interest in culture. It finds systematic, but small differences between the genders, age groups and people of different educational attainment, and no differences between people with high and low income. Participation levels are high in all social strata. However, interest in culture is an important predictor of participation. Differences in social background and cultural interest matter more for participation in high-brow events. The authors conclude that the ECOC event was fairly inclusive of different population segments.
Nils Asle Bergsgard and Anders Vassenden:
The legacy of Stavanger as Capital of Culture in Europe 2008: watershed or puff of wind?
International Journal of Cultural Policy. Vol 17. No. 3, 2011.
When studying the impact of cultural mega events, researchers tend to scrutinise their economic benefits, cultural identity, competitive advantage in attracting the attention of important stakeholders or the effect on regional development and urban regeneration. The impact on the field of cultural production has received less attention. In this article, the authors highlight the latter. Stavanger, Norway, was the 2008 European Capital of Culture. We present an analysis of the impact of this mega event on the cultural sector in the Stavanger region. Using Bourdieu’s notions of social field and social capital, this article explores the interplay between this mega event and the structure of the local field of culture. The authors analyse (1) the impact on the field itself; and (2) how it affected different parts of the sector differently. The article concludes that the field was ‘lifted’. At the same time, the larger and most institutionalised producers – the core arts institutions – gained the most, especially by increasing their social capital.
Nils Asle Bergsgard, Kari Jøsendal and Beatriz Garcia:
A cultural mega event's impact on innovative capabilities in art production: the results of Stavanger being the European capital of culture in 2008.
International Journal of Innovation and Regional Development. Vol. 2, No. 4, 2010.
Large cultural events are often catalysts for the development of the cultural economy. This paper examines the extent to which being a European capital of culture influenced inter-industrial and intra-industrial knowledge spillovers in cultural production. The main focus is on the event's ability to strengthen the involved organizations' capabilities for innovation. The location for the study is the Stavanger region on the west coast of Norway, the European capital of culture in 2008. The results indicate that being a European capital of culture affected inter-industrial and intra-industrial knowledge spillovers, however only for a limited part of the cultural and creative sector.
Can Large-Scale Cultural Events Lead to Cultural Scepticism?
Nordic Journal of Cultural Policy/Nordisk Kulturpolitisk Tidskrift. Vol. 13, No. 1, 2010.
Large scale cultural events often have idealistic aims of affecting participants and spectators in a positive manner, by widening public’s cultural understandings and horizons. The ‘Open Port’ motto chosen for the Stavanger region as European Capital of Culture in 2008 explicitly signalled such ambitions. This article takes the idea of a positive link between exposure to broad-ranging cultural events and tolerance for cultural diversity as a starting point. Nevertheless, there is seemingly little empirical support in the research literature for such a postulate. On this background we suggest a different line of arguments, based on the idea of relative deprivation. Rather than expecting positive change in the beliefs of those more exposed, this alternative hypothesis presumes that inhabitants away from the main centres of artistic and cultural activities, could react. They will often see themselves as left behind and kept out from the grand events, it is contended. In this way we hypothesise that local inhabitants living outside of the central areas will react negatively, by becoming less sympathetic. Special survey data from the region for the period 2007-2009 indicate empirical support for this alternative hypothesis, based on the idea of relative deprivation. At the same time there is little evidence of a possible link between higher exposure and increased tolerance. Multiple regression analysis with an index of cultural scepticism as the dependent variable shows basically no change in attitudes for those living close to main centres of Stavanger 2008 activities. At the same time there is a significant increase in cultural scepticism among local inhabitants living farther away from the central axis. Moreover, results from surveys at the national level confirm a picture of stability in cultural scepticism for Norwegians in general during the same period. This makes an explanation of the observed change for inhabitants living within the larger Stavanger region but outside the central axis, especially challenging. Although the empirical patterns are consistent with the idea of relative deprivation, these findings could not be regarded as a strong test of the hypothesis at this stage. Further research, in alternative settings and with supplementary measures is needed.
Beliefs in culture as an instrument for regional development: The case of Stavanger, European Capital of Culture 2008.
In Ludmila Malíková and Martin Sirák (eds.): Regional and Urban Regeneration in European Peripheries: What Role for Culture? Bratislava: Institute of Public Policy, 2008.
The Norwegian production of petroleum has peaked and in a not too distant future, the Norwegian ‘oil capital’ Stavanger has to meet the challenge of a declining petroleum industry. The bid for the status as European Capital of Culture in 2008 was one of the initiatives taken by local authorities in order to make the Stavanger region more attractive for new businesses and highly skilled employees. The bid reflected a belief in culture is as an important instrument for regional development. This article throw light on the question of how widespread the belief in culture was among the citizens as well as leading politicians, civil servants and business managers in the Stavanger region prior to the year as European Capital of Culture.
Can wooden architecture bond the urban past to the urban future? (presentasjon av Ib Omland og LeRoy Tonning i Istanbul, 2009)
Cristin Berg og Hilmar Rommetvedt:
Stavanger-regionen som europeisk kulturhovedstad – slik innbyggerne ser det.
Stavanger: International Research Institute of Stavanger. Rapport 2009/203
Nils Asle Bergsgard og Anders Vassenden:
Stavanger-regionen som europeisk kulturhovedstad - slik kulturaktørene ser det.
Stavanger: International Research Institute of Stavanger. Rapport 2009/199