The manganese nodule field in the abyssal Pacific that is planning to be mined. Photo: Abyssline/ University of Hawaii
IRIS marine researcher publishes paper in SCIENCE
16.05.2014In the May 16 issue of "Science", a group of marine scientists, including Dr. Andrew K. Sweetman who is the research coordinator deep-sea ecosystem research at IRIS, call for stewardship of the world’s largest living space.
(Washington) The world’s deep ocean spans more than half the planet and untold quantities of untapped energy resources, precious metals, and minerals reside in its depths. Humankind needs and depends upon many of the deep ocean’s treasures, and the race is already on to exploit them.
“Most of the deep ocean has never been explored. But what we have seen reveals a vast diversity of life forms and habitats important to the health of our planet,” said Lisa Levin, director of the Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation (CMBC) at Scripps Institution of Oceanography based in San Diego, California. “Slow-growing species are the norm, and some ecosystems once injured may never recover”.
The deep ocean, below 200 meters faces mounting challenges, as impacts from activities such as fishing, oil and gas development, waste disposal, and land-based pollution have already caused long-term and possibly irreversible injury to some deep ocean environments. Industrial-scale mining looms on the horizon. Governance of the water column and the seabed below 200 meters is a mixed bag of regulations across national and international jurisdictions, throwing more stumbling blocks in the path to ensure the long-term health of the deep ocean.
“To advance deep-ocean stewardship,” said Kathryn Mengerink, lead author of the paper, the CMBC senior fellow for environmental law and policy, and the Environmental Law Institute’s Ocean Program co-director. “We need to move forward with caution, protecting and minimizing impacts to known sensitive species and areas and the vast unknown. We should invest in improving our knowledge of the deep before further exploiting its resources, so that we don’t suffer irreversible loss of incredible organisms and ecosystems.”
The International Seabed Authority has already developed regulations for mining exploration for the international seabed and has just started the process to develop exploitation regulations. In addition, many nations are in the process of leasing for offshore mining.
According to Andrew Sweetman
, “The demand for deep ocean resources is increasing and will only continue to increase with the rising global human population. However, because we know so little about this vast ecosystem, we must adopt a more precautionary approach and governments/ industries must seriously invest in supporting more ocean research so that scientists can learn what we still do not yet know. Learning these unknowns will form the building blocks that will help in designing management approaches that work to facilitate exploitation in the most environmentally sustainable way possible”.
Given the substantial knowledge gaps, future exploitation of deep-ocean resources will inevitably be punctuated with new discoveries as well as unexpected harmful effects of planned activities. Both will require transparent and adaptive decision-making, balancing exploitation with lasting protection of habitats, biodiversity, and ecosystem services.
The ideas for this paper arose during an inaugural meeting of the Deep Ocean Stewardship Initiative (DOSI) in Mexico City in April 2013.
According to Levin, one of DOSI’s founders, “The Initiative is designed to bring natural and social scientists, regulators, the private sector, and civil society together to provide guidance on environmental management of the deep ocean. We humans don’t have a great track record with stewardship of land and our coastal ocean. Hopefully, we can do a better job with the deep half of the planet”.
The J.M. Kaplan Fund and the International Network for Scientific Investigation of deep-sea ecosystems (INDEEP) through a grant from Foundation Total have supported development of the Deep-Ocean Stewardship Initiative.
to read the paper.